Screening & Straining - Use of screens to remove coarse floating and large suspended solids
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Clarification: Separation of particules in suspension of the water from clear water, using gravity depending on their size and specific weight. The particules can be naturally occuring in the raw water, or the results of coagulation and flocculation. Colloidal matter is made up of electrostatically charged macromolecules, non settleable. The neutralization or destabilisation of the electrostatic forces (charges) of repulsion takes place during the phase of coagulation, whereas their enlargement takes place during the phase of flocculation. The non settleable colloidal matter is then settleable.
Media filtration: Physical Separation of a continuous phase (water and dissolved matter) and of a dispersed / scattered phase (suspended solids, could be naturally occurring or results of chemical treatment). Media Filtration uses materials that form a barrier to the passage of certain suspended solids or dissolved liquids in filters.
Membrane filtration: A membrane is any material which forms a thin wall and is capable of putting up a selective resistance to the transfer of different constituents of a fluid, thus allowing the separation of some of the elements (suspensions, solutes, solvents) making up this fluid. The membrane is a semi-permeable skin of which the pass-through is determined by size or special nature of the particles.
Reverse Osmosis: The Reversed Osmosis (RO) process uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate and remove dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, submicron colloidal matter, viruses, and bacteria from water. The process is called'reverse' osmosis since it requires pressure higher than the osmotic pressure of the solution, to force pure water across a membrane, leaving the impurities behind.
Desalination: The removal of salt from seawater or brackish water to produce drinking water, using various techniques
- Membrane and Thermal Technologies